What is Mucormycosis? (Read Mucormycosis in Gujarati)

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What is Mucormycosis? (Read Mucormycosis in Gujarati),Types of Mucormycosis,Types of fungi that most commonly cause mucormycosis, Symptoms of Mucormycosis,Prevention of mucormycosis 2021.

What is Mucormycosis? (Read Mucormycosis in Gujarati): (previously called zygomycosis) is a serious but rare fungal infection caused by a group of molds called mucormycetes. These molds live throughout the environment. Mucormycosis mainly affects people who have health problems or take medicines that lower the body’s ability to fight germs and sickness. It most commonly affects the sinuses or the lungs after inhaling fungal spores from the air, or the skin after the fungus enters the skin through a cut, burn, or other type of skin injury. However, it can occur in nearly any part of the body.

 

Types of Mucormycosis :

  • Rhinocerebral (sinus and brain) mucormycosis is an infection in the
    sinuses that can spread to the brain. This form of mucormycosis is most
    common in people with uncontrolled diabetes and in people who have had
    a kidney transplant.
  • Pulmonary (lung) mucormycosis is the most common type of
    mucormycosis in people with cancer and in people who have had an organ
    transplant or a stem cell transplant.
  • Gastrointestinal mucormycosis is more common among young children
    than adults, especially premature and low birth weight infants less than 1
    month of age, who have had antibiotics, surgery, or medications that lower
    the body’s ability to fight germs and sickness.
  • Cutaneous (skin) mucormycosis: occurs after the fungi enter the body
    through a break in the skin (for example, after surgery, a burn, or other
    type of skin trauma). This is the most common form of mucormycosis
    among people who do not have weakened immune systems.
  • Disseminated mucormycosis occurs when the infection spreads through
    the bloodstream to affect another part of the body. The infection most
    commonly affects the brain, but also can affect other organs such as the
    spleen, heart, and skin.

 

Types of fungi that most commonly cause mucormycosis :

What is Mucormycosis? (Read Mucormycosis in Gujarati):  species, Mucor species, Rhizomucor species, Syncephalastrum species, C unninghamella bertholletiae, Apophysomyces species, and Lichtheimia (formerly Absidia) species.

Symptoms of Mucormycosis :

The symptoms of mucormycosis depend on where in the body the fungus is growing.

Symptoms of rhinocerebral (sinus and brain) mucormycosis include:
• One-sided facial swelling
• Headache
• Nasal or sinus congestion
• Black lesions on nasal bridge or upper inside of mouth that quickly become more severe
• Fever

Symptoms of pulmonary (lung) mucormycosis include:
• Fever
• Cough
• Chest pain
• Shortness of breath
Cutaneous (skin) mucormycosis can look like blisters or ulcers, and the infected area may turn black. Other symptoms include pain, warmth, excessive redness, or swelling around a wound.

Symptoms of gastrointestinal mucormycosis include:
• Abdominal pain
• Nausea and vomiting
• Gastrointestinal bleeding.

Disseminated mucormycosis typically occurs in people who are already sick
from other medical conditions, so it can be difficult to know which symptoms are
related to mucormycosis. Patients with disseminated infection in the brain can
develop mental status changes or coma.

People at Risk :

Certain groups of people are more likely to get mucormycosis, including people
with:
• Diabetes, especially with diabetic ketoacidosis
• Cancer
• Organ transplant
• Stem cell transplant
• Neutropenia
• Long-term corticosteroid use
• Injection drug use
• Too much iron in the body (iron overload or hemochromatosis)
• Skin injury due to surgery, burns, or wounds
• Prematurity and low birthweight (for neonatal gastrointestinal
mucormycosis)

Mode of transmission :

People get mucormycosis through contact with fungal spores in the environment. For example, the lung or sinus forms of the infection can occur after someone inhales the spores from the air. A skin infection can occur after the fungus enters the skin through a scrape, burn, or other type of skin injury.Mucormycosis can’t spread between people or between people and animals.

Prevention of mucormycosis :

• Protect yourself from the environment. It’s important to note that although these actions are recommended, they haven’t been proven to prevent mucormycosis.
• Wear an N95 respirator face mask.

•Avoid direct contact with lots of dust like constructions, water-damaged buildings and natural disasters.
• Wear shoes, long pants, and a long-sleeved shirt when doing outdoor activities.
• Wear gloves when handling materials such as soil, moss, or manure.
• Clean skin injuries well with soap and water, especially if they have been exposed to soil or dust.

Diagnosis and testing for Mucormycosis:

• A Medical history, symptoms, physical examinations, and laboratory tests
when diagnosing mucormycosis.
• Definitive diagnosis of mucormycosis typically requires histopathological
evidence or positive culture from a specimen from the site of infection.
• Tissue biopsy, in which a small sample of affected tissue is analyzed in a
laboratory for evidence of mucormycosis under a microscope or in a fungal
culture.
• CT scan of lungs, sinuses, or other parts of your body, depending on the
location of the suspected infection.

Treatment for Mucormycosis:

Mucormycosis is a serious infection and needs to be treated with prescription
antifungal medicine, usually amphotericin B, posaconazole, or isavuconazole.
These medicines are given through a vein (amphotericin B, posaconazole,
isavuconazole) or by mouth (posaconazole, isavuconazole). Other medicines,
including fluconazole, voriconazole, and echinocandins, do not work against
fungi that cause mucormycosis. Often, mucormycosis requires surgery to cut
away the infected tissue.
The overall prognosis depends on several factors, including the rapidity of
diagnosis and treatment, the site of infection, and the patient’s underlying
conditions and degree of immunosuppression. The overall mortality rate is
approximately 50%,although early identification and treatment can lead to better
outcomes.

 

 


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